Weakly Supervised
Text classification with extremely small datasets, relies heavily on feature engineering methods such as number of hashtags, number of punctuations and other insights that are really good for this type of text.
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    A great review paper for weakly supervision, discusses:
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      Incomplete supervision
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      Active learning
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    Stanford on weakly
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    Out of distribution generalization using test-time training - "Test-time training turns a single unlabeled test instance into a self-supervised learning problem, on which we update the model parameters before making a prediction on this instance. "
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    Learning Deep Networks from Noisy Labels with Dropout Regularization - "Large datasets often have unreliable labels—such as those obtained from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk or social media platforms—and classifiers trained on mislabeled datasets often exhibit poor performance. We present a simple, effective technique for accounting for label noise when training deep neural networks. We augment a standard deep network with a softmax layer that models the label noise statistics. Then, we train the deep network and noise model jointly via end-to-end stochastic gradient descent on the (perhaps mislabeled) dataset. The augmented model is overdetermined, so in order to encourage the learning of a non-trivial noise model, we apply dropout regularization to the weights of the noise model during training. Numerical experiments on noisy versions of the CIFAR-10 and MNIST datasets show that the proposed dropout technique outperforms state-of-the-art methods."
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    Distill to label weakly supervised instance labeling using knowledge distillation - “Weakly supervised instance labeling using only image-level labels, in lieu of expensive fine-grained pixel annotations, is crucial in several applications including medical image analysis. In contrast to conventional instance segmentation scenarios in computer vision, the problems that we consider are characterized by a small number of training images and non-local patterns that lead to the diagnosis. In this paper, we explore the use of multiple instance learning (MIL) to design an instance label generator under this weakly supervised setting. Motivated by the observation that an MIL model can handle bags of varying sizes, we propose to repurpose an MIL model originally trained for bag-level classification to produce reliable predictions for single instances, i.e., bags of size 1. To this end, we introduce a novel regularization strategy based on virtual adversarial training for improving MIL training, and subsequently develop a knowledge distillation technique for repurposing the trained MIL model. Using empirical studies on colon cancer and breast cancer detection from histopathological images, we show that the proposed approach produces high-quality instance-level prediction and significantly outperforms state-of-the MIL methods.”
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